Culture medium [pl. media]
Culture media are solutions containing all of the nutrients and necessary physical growth parameters necessary for microbial growth.
Note that not all microorganisms can grow in any given culture medium and, in fact, many can't grow in any known culture medium.
In addition to chemical and physical characteristics, media can be distinguished qualitatively as:
Solid medium [agar]
Solid medium is media containing agar or some other, mostly inert solidifying agent.
Solid medium has physical structure (broth lacks structure) and this allows bacteria to grow in physically informative or useful ways (e.g., as colonies or in streaks).
Solid medium is usually used as:
ALLOPATHIC: (as defined at Brainy Dictionary) “of or pertaining to allopathy- (n.) That system of medical practice which aims to combat disease by the use of remedies which produce effects different from those produced by the special disease treated; -- a term invented by Hahnemann to designate the ordinary practice, as opposed to homeopathy”.
ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: (as defined by the U. S. National Institutes of Health, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine) “is used in place of conventional medicine. An example of an alternative therapy is using a special diet to treat cancer instead of undergoing surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy that has been recommended by a conventional doctor”.
ANABOLISM: (From http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0316326.html)
"Constructive metabolism; the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances from simpler ones (opposed to catabolism)."
CATABOLISM: (From http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0810812.html)
"Subdivision of metabolism involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. Large polymeric molecules such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are first split into their constituent monomeric units, such as amino acids, after which the monomers themselves can be broken down into such simple cellular metabolites as lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The first set of reactions provides the cell with monomers with which it can construct new polymeric molecules. The second set of reactions usually involves the process of oxidation and is accompanied by a release of chemical free energy, not all of which is lost as heat, but is partially conserved through the coupled synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. The hydrolysis of this compound is subsequently used to drive almost every energy-requiring reaction in the cell. Thus catabolism also provides the source of chemical energy necessary for the maintenance of the living cell." (opposed to anabolism)
CENTRIOLE: (From http://www.fact-index.com/c/ce/centriole.html)
A centriole in biology is a hollow cylindrical organelle found in most animal cells, and cells of fungi and algae. The walls of centrioles are composed of nine triplets of microtubules, each arranged at a right angle (so when looking down the tube, one end of the triplet pair points slightly out and the other end points slightly inwards).
CHOLESTEROL: (From http://kidshealth.org/teen/question/dieting/cholesterol.html)
"Cholesterol, a waxy substance produced by the liver and found in certain foods, is needed to make vitamin D and some hormones, build cell walls, and create bile salts that help you digest fat....a type of lipid, is found in foods from animal sources."
CHYLOMICRONS (From http://www.gpnotebook.co.uk/cache/-510001095.htm)
Chylomicrons transport dietary fat from gut to adipose tissue, liver and muscle cells. They have the heaviest mass of any lipid-containing particle and are the richest in triglyceride. In general, fat absorption is complete within a few hours of ingesting food, and the chylomicron concentration fluctuates during this period. In fit, healthy people chylomicrons account for a modest postprandial rise in triglycerides. However in individuals where the clearance of chylomicrons from the circulation is delayed there may be a marked rise in triglycerides following food ingestion.
The term colloidal refers to a state of subdivision, implying that the molecules or polymolecular particles dispersed in a medium have at least in one direction a dimension roughly between 1 nm and 1µm, or that in a system discontinuities are found at distances of that order. It is not necessary for all three dimensions to be in the colloidal range: fibers in which only two dimensions are in this range, and thin films, in which one dimension is in this range, may also be classified as colloidal. Nor is it necessary for the units of a colloidal system to be discrete: continuous network structures, the basic units of which are of colloidal dimensions also fall in this class (e.g. porous solids, gels and foams).
A suspension of small particles dispersed in another substance (or medium).
COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE: (as defined by the U. S. National Institutes of Health, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine) “is used together with conventional medicine. An example of a complementary therapy is using aromatherapy to help lessen a patient's discomfort following surgery”.
“A chromosome is a grouping of coiled strands of DNA, containing many genes. Most multi-cellular organisms have several chromosomes, which together comprise the genome. Sexually reproducing organisms have two copies of each chromosome, one from the each parent.”
CYTOPLASM: (From http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0397673.html)
"The cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles."
DARKFIELD: (from Charlotte K. Omoto, Department of Genetics and Cell Biology, Washington State University) “Rather than illuminating the sample with a filled cone of light, the condenser is designed to form a hollow cone of light. The light at the apex of the cone is focused at the plane of the specimen; as this light moves past the specimen plane it spreads again into a hollow cone. The objective lens sits in the dark hollow of this cone; although the light travels around and past the objective lens, no rays enter it .... The entire field appears dark when there is no sample on the microscope stage; thus the name darkfield microscopy.” (See also here for its specific application to live blood analysis.)
DIPLOCOCCUS: (From http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0408704.html)
"Any of several spherical bacteria occurring in pairs...."
ECOBIOTICS: (From Stuart Grace)
"...an imbalance of certain ionized salts (i.e., bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, and sodium) in the blood."
ENDOBIOSIS: (From www.sanum.com/materiamedica/)
"This research was initiated by Enderlein in the year 1916, while he was working on typhoid. In blood using a darkfield microscope he observed mobile, tiniest living forms, named Spermits, which copulated with higher organized structures, whereafter the product of the copulation became suddenly invisible. Enderlein interpreted this as sexual processes, whereby tiniest, final products occurred, which are not visible to the eye of the light microscope. He named the symbiotic, primal plant germ in the erythrocyte Endobiont. This Endobiont lives in genuine symbiosis with the host organism, that is, with mutual benefits. Through outer factors, the Endobiont can multiply and develop - a process which can considerably disturb the symbiotic equilibrium. A healthy organism is capable of restoring the equilibrium. In this process, the more highly developed pathogenic germs are broken down into avirulent primitive forms through the copulation described by Enderlein. They leave the body through the natural organs of elimination."
ENDOGENOUS: (From http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0425265.html)
“1. proceeding from within; derived internally.
"Also known as vitamin F, these are fatty acids which must be supplied thorough the diet and cannot be produced by the body. These are polyunsaturated acids...."
FATTY ACIDS: (From http://www.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/lipids.html)
"Fatty acids fill two major roles in the body:
FOLIC ACID: (From http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0444855.html)
"A water-soluble vitamin that is converted to a coenzyme essential to purine and thymine biosynthesis: deficiency causes a form of anemia."
FRUCTIFY: (From http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0450595.html)
To bear fruit; become fruitful: With careful tending the plant will fructify.
To make fruitful or productive; fertilize: warm spring rains fructifying the earth
GAMETE: (From http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0453202.html)
"A mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell to form a new organism."
HEMOGLOBIN: (From http://blueprint.bluecrossmn.com/topic/topic100586922)
“Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body.”
HISTOLOGY: branch of anatomy that deals with the minute structure of animal and plant tissues as discernible with the microscope (From http://www.ausbcomp.com/~bbott/wik/histolog.htm)
INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE: (as defined by the U. S. National Institutes of Health, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine) “combines mainstream medical therapies and CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) therapies for which there is some high-quality scientific evidence of safety and effectiveness”.
"Overgrowth of bacteria and yeast in the gut ...."
ISOPATHY: (as defined by Endo Health Limited) “is based on the same principle except that instead of using a similar remedy, the Isopathic practitioner will use a homeopathically potentised preparation of the substance or organism that is causing the symptoms displayed by the patient. Thus the remedy could be derived from bacteria, viruses, gases, and chemical substances, which includes radioactive materials.”
“A branch of anatomy that deals with the minute structure of animal and plant tissues as discernible with the microscope 2: a treatise on histology 3: tissue structure or organization.”
LIPASE: (From http://greenwoodhealth.net/np/lipase.htm)
"...an enzyme capable of degrading lipid molecules."
LIPIDS: (From http://www.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/lipids.html)
“Major Roles of Biological of Lipids
Biological molecules that are insoluble in aqueous solutions and soluble in organic solvents are classified as lipids. The lipids of physiological importance for humans have four major functions:
1. They serve as structural components of biological membranes.
LIPOPROTEINS: (From http://www.eufic.org/gb/glos/glos_jkl.htm)
"Particles composed of specialized proteins and lipids (triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol) which enable lipids (which are water insoluble) to be carried in blood plasma."
MACROPHAGIC: ingests bacteria as part of the immune response to infection. Inside this white blood cell, bacterial proteins are degraded into peptides and presented as antigens by specialized molecules on the cell's surface.
MESENCHYMAL: (From http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Undifferentiated%20mesenchymal%20cell)
“Mesenchymal cells are stem cells. Stem cells are cells which are not terminally differentiated and are therefore able to produce cells of other types. Mesenchymal cells can differentiate into oteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, and adipocytes.”
MONOGLYCERIDES: (From http://www.factmonster.com/ipd/A0542529.html)
"...an ester obtained from glycerol by the esterification of one hydroxyl group with a fatty acid. Cf. glyceride."
MORPHOLOGY: (From http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0543907.html)
"1. the branch of biology dealing with the form and structure of organisms.
NUCLEIC ACID: (From http://www.ndif.org/Terms/nucleic_acid.html-NDI Foundation) “A high-molecular-weight nucleotide polymer. There are two types: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)”.
PATHOGENESIS: (From http://www.rerf.or.jp/eigo/glossary/pathogen.htm)
"The development of morbid conditions or of disease; more specifically the cellular events and reactions and other pathologic mechanisms occurring in the development of disease."
PHOSPHOLIPID: (From http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0838856.html)
A."lipid that in its simplest form is composed of glycerol bonded to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The resulting compound called phosphatidic acid contains a region (the fatty acid component) that is fat-soluble along with a region (the charged phosphate group) that is water-soluble. Most phospholipids also have an additional chemical group bound to the phosphate. For example, it may be connected with choline; the resulting phospholipid is called phosphatidylcholine, or lecithin. Other phospholipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The bipolar character of phospholipids is essential to their biological function in cell membranes. The fat-soluble portions associate with the fat-soluble portions of other phospholipids while the water-soluble regions remain exposed to the surrounding solvent. The phospholipids of the cell membrane form into a sheet two molecules thick with the fat-soluble portions inside shielded on both sides by the water-soluble portions. This stable structure provides the cell membrane with its integrity."
PLEOMORPHISM: (from Dr. Peter Schneider) “certain microorganisms can be present in different forms and development stages, from lowest grades up to the large, highly developed stages of bacteria and fungi.” (See the papers listed below by Stuart Grace for a more detailed description. To read them you will need Adobe Acrobat Reader.)
PRION: (From http://www.rkm.com.au/BSE/)
"Prions are pathogenic variants of proteins that are naturally produced in nerve cells and certain other cells. The normal 'healthy' prions are referred to as PrPc (Prion Protein cellular). The word 'prion' stands for ‘proteinaceous infectious particle’ and so should properly only be applied to the pathogenic variants."
PROBIOTICS (medical): (as defined by The International Study Group on New Antimicrobial Strategies) “a microbial preparation which contains live and/or dead bacteria including their components and products”.
PROTEASE: (From http://greenwoodhealth.net/np/protease.htm)
"Protease refers to a group of enzymes whose catalytic function is to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds of proteins. They are also called proteolytic enzymes or proteinases. Proteases differ in their ability to hydrolyze various peptide bonds. Each type of protease has a specific kind of peptide bonds it breaks. Examples of proteases include: fungal protease, pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain, bromelain, and subtilisin."
"Tissue in which there is no cellular structure."
TRACE MINERALS: Minerals that occur in tiny amounts or traces. They play a major role in health, since even minute portions of them can powerfully affect health. They are essential in the assimilation and utilization of vitamins and other nutrients.
VITAMIN B12: (From http://www.cc.nih.gov/ccc/supplements/vitb12.html#what)
"Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is important to good health. It helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells, and is also needed to make DNA, the genetic material in all cells (1-4). Vitamin B12 is bound to the protein in food. Hydrochloric acid in the stomach releases B12 from protein during digestion. Once released, B12 combines with a substance called intrinsic factor (IF) before it is absorbed into the bloodstream."
VITAMIN E: (From http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0861827.html)
“Vitamin E occurs in at least eight molecular forms (tocopherols or tocotrienols); in humans the most biologically active form has generally been considered to be alpha-tocopherol, which is also the most common. All forms exist as light yellow, viscous oils. The best sources are vegetable oils. Other sources include green leafy vegetables, wheat germ, some nuts, and eggs. Vitamin E is necessary for the maintenance of cell membranes.”
DentalReference:: the best free on-line dental dictionary we have found; from “abcess” to “xerostomia”.
MT Desk: the most extensive on-line resource and reference we have located for virtually any medical term.
The Alternative Medicine Homepage: an excellent resource by Charles B. Wessel, M.L.S., firstname.lastname@example.org - Falk Library of the Health Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261; covering AIDS & HIV -- Databases -- Internet Resources -- Mailing Lists and Newsgroups --Government Resources -- Pennsylvania Resources -- Practitioners' Directories --Related Resources.